So as I was writing this post, I realized that a more suitable title may have been retinoid vs. retinol vs. retinoic acid vs. all-trans-retinoic acid vs. retinyl palmitate vs. OMG WTF?!
As you can see, all of these terms look and sound the same, but they are all slightly different.
Since retinoids are the gold standard for giving your skin a youthful, glowing appearance I’m going to help you to understand the difference between retinoids vs. retinol (and all of those other names, too!)
Retinoid vs. Retinol vs. ETC.
In pharmacy school, we were taught that retinol is another name for vitamin A. As you know, vitamin A can be found in certain foods (kale, sweet potatoes, carrots, etc.). Vitamin A can also be synthetically made as a dietary supplement or for use in skincare products.
Retinyl palmitate is the ester of retinol. Throwback to o-chem (literally my favorite class in pharmacy school!): an ester is a compound that is derived from an acid in which at least one of the hydroxyl (-OH) groups is replaced by an alkyl (–O–) group.
When retinol is metabolized, it forms retinoic acid. Once again, retinoic acid can also be man-made and used in prescription drugs, such as brand name Retin-A (generic name = tretinoin) and brand name Accutane (generic name = isotretinoin). Since tretinoin is the all-trans isomer of retinoic acid, it is also referred to as all-trans-retinoic acid.
The term retinoid encompasses all of the aforementioned derivatives of retinol and is considered a class of chemical compounds that demonstrate vitamin A activity.
When it comes to OTC anti-aging creams and serums, skincare experts consider pure retinol to be the most effective of the retinoids.
How does retinol benefit the skin?
Retinol is one of the best anti-aging ingredients because it has so many functions:
- Retinol can minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles
- Retinol can improve uneven skin tone
- Retinol can increase skin firmness
- Retinol can shrink the appearance of pores
So how does retinol provide your skin with all of these benefits? Let's look at the science.
Retinoids have a very complex mechanism of action. According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, all retinoids, not just retinol, are very effective at slowing and preventing the aging effects of UV exposure.
In the nucleus of cells there are retinoic acid (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). When retinol interacts with these nuclear receptors, the production of procollagen is increased and the release of inflammatory mediators is blocked. Thus, retinol can improve any collagen deficiency that exists in the skin when applied topically. Furthermore, since vitamin A (retinol) is an antioxidant, applying a retinol product to your skin works to combat the damaging effects of free radicals. Retinoids also act as comedolytic agents and work by unclogging blocked pores. So retinoids are not only excellent anti-aging ingredients, but they can also help with acne!
My favorite retinol products
FutureDerm Time Release Retinol 0.5
After months of dealing with red, irritated, peeling skin from my prescription strength retinoid (tretinoin 0.05%) I had pretty much dismissed all retinoid products, despite their reputation as being the gold standard of anti-aging skincare. Then I found the FutureDerm Time Release Retinol 0.5. Now that I think back on it, my struggles with tretinoin are what led me to find Nicki's blog, FutureDerm. I would spend hours staying up at night reading all of the amazing content she wrote about skincare products and tips. Nicki is one of my main inspirations for starting a skincare blog! After reading her blog for so long, I was thrilled with the opportunity to try her products. Plus, after my success with the FutureDerm CE Caffeic Silk Serum, I was ready to ditch my prescription tretinoin and try the FutureDerm Time Release Retinol 0.5.
[Related post: 7 Skincare Products You Need to Add to Your Daily Routine]
I’m happy to say that I’ve had success with this retinol product! It is gentle and does not irritate my skin. While I’m lucky enough to not have to deal with wrinkles yet, I am using this product nightly to help delay the development of wrinkles and other signs of aging. After using this product for about 3 months, I've noticed that my skin feels smoother and firmer. Overall, I really love it!
Buy it > here
Rodan + Fields REDEFINE Overnight Restorative Cream
The Rodan + Fields REDEFINE Overnight Restorative Cream contains retinyl palmitate that helps to firm the skin overnight. I love this product because it also contains ultra-moisturizing ingredients, like hyaluronic acid and glycerin, to prevent moisture loss and keep my skin soft and smooth. Plus, this product also contains vitamins C and E, two of the best antioxidants to improve your complexion!
[Related post: Breaking It Down: Antioxidants & Free Radicals]
Buy it > here
So do you have a better understanding of the difference between retinoids and retinol now? Is there anything that is still unclear? Please leave me a comment below or reach out to me by email - I'd love to answer any questions you have!